10001044 J Clin Psychiatry / Document Archive

Psychiatrist.com Home    Keyword Search

Close [X]

Search Our Sites

Enter search terms below (keywords, titles, authors, or subjects). Then select a category to search and press the Search button. All words are assumed to be required. To search for an exact phrase, put it in quotes. To exclude a term, precede it with a minus sign (-).

Keyword search:

Choose a category:

Choosing the appropriate category will greatly improve your chances of finding the best match.

All files at our sites: J Clin Psychiatry, Primary Care Companion, CME Institute, and MedFair

Search materials from our journals:

Abstracts from The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 1996–present, both regular issues and supplements

PDFs of the full text of The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 1996–present, both regular issues and supplements (Net Society Platinum [paid subscribers])

PDFs of the full text of The Primary Care Companion to The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 1999–present

Search CME offerings:

CME Institute, including CME from journals , supplements, and Web activities for instant CME credit (Net Society Gold [registered users]); also includes information about our CME program

CME activities from regular issues of The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (Net Society Gold [registered users])

CME Supplements from The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (Net Society Gold [registered users])


The article you requested is

Risk Factors for Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder in a Community Sample of Young Women: The Role of Traumatic Events and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. [CME]

J Clin Psychiatry 2004;65:1314-1322
Copyright 2004 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

To view this item, select one of the options below.

    1. Purchase this PDF for $40
      If you are not a paid subscriber, you may purchase the PDF.
      (You'll need the free Adobe Acrobat Reader.)
    2. Subscribe
      Receive immediate full-text access to JCP. You can subscribe to JCP print + online for $166 individual.
      JCP's 75th AnniversaryCelebrate!
      Celebrate JCP's 75th Anniversary with a special online-only subscription price of $75.
    1. Activate
      If you are a paid subscriber to JCP and do not yet have a username and password, activate your subscription now.
    2. Sign in
      As a paid subscriber who has activated your subscription, you have access to the HTML and PDF versions of this item.
  1. Did you forget your password?

Still can't log in? Contact the Circulation Department at 1-800-489-1001 x4 or send an email


Background: There is some evidence that the onset and course of premenstrual syndrome is related to stress; however, few studies have explored the role of traumatic events and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as risk factors for the development of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD).

Method: A community cohort of 1488 women (aged 14-24 years at baseline) were prospectively and longitudinally evaluated up to 3 times over a period of about 42 months from 1995 to 1999. The DSM-IV version of the Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to establish PMDD and PTSD diagnostic status; stressful life events and conditions were assessed with the Munich Events List and the Daily Hassles Scale. Prevalence and incidence of either threshold or subthreshold PMDD from baseline to the second follow-up were calculated. Risk factors, including prior comorbid mental disorders and traumatic events, were examined using logistic regression analysis.

Results: The incidence of threshold PMDD was 3.0%. The most powerful predictors were subthreshold PMDD at baseline (OR = 11.0, 95% CI = 4.7 to 25.9). Traumatic events greatly increased the odds of developing PMDD at follow-up (OR = 4.2, 95% CI = 1.2 to 12.0). Other predictors were a history of anxiety disorder (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.1 to 5.5) and elevated daily hassles scores (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1 to 2.3). Both were also associated with the risk of developing subthreshold PMDD, although the association was less robust.

Conclusions: Traumatic events and preexisting anxiety disorders are risk factors for the development of PMDD. The underlying mechanisms are unknown, making further investigation necessary.