10001318 J Clin Psychiatry / Document Archive

Psychiatrist.com Home    Keyword Search

Close [X]

Search Our Sites

Enter search terms below (keywords, titles, authors, or subjects). Then select a category to search and press the Search button. All words are assumed to be required. To search for an exact phrase, put it in quotes. To exclude a term, precede it with a minus sign (-).

Keyword search:

Choose a category:

Choosing the appropriate category will greatly improve your chances of finding the best match.

All files at our sites: J Clin Psychiatry, Primary Care Companion, CME Institute, and MedFair

Search materials from our journals:

Abstracts from The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 1996–present, both regular issues and supplements

PDFs of the full text of The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 1996–present, both regular issues and supplements (Net Society Platinum [paid subscribers])

PDFs of the full text of The Primary Care Companion to The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 1999–present

Search CME offerings:

CME Institute, including CME from journals , supplements, and Web activities for instant CME credit (Net Society Gold [registered users]); also includes information about our CME program

CME activities from regular issues of The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (Net Society Gold [registered users])

CME Supplements from The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (Net Society Gold [registered users])


The article you requested is

Factors Associated With Medication Adherence in African American and White Patients With Bipolar Disorder.

J Clin Psychiatry 2005;66:646-652
Copyright 2005 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

To view this item, select one of the options below.

    1. Purchase this PDF for $40
      If you are not a paid subscriber, you may purchase the PDF.
      (You'll need the free Adobe Acrobat Reader.)
    2. Subscribe
      Receive immediate full-text access to JCP. You can subscribe to JCP print + online for $166 individual.
      JCP's 75th AnniversaryCelebrate!
      Celebrate JCP's 75th Anniversary with a special online-only subscription price of $75.
    1. Activate
      If you are a paid subscriber to JCP and do not yet have a username and password, activate your subscription now.
    2. Sign in
      As a paid subscriber who has activated your subscription, you have access to the HTML and PDF versions of this item.
  1. Did you forget your password?

Still can't log in? Contact the Circulation Department at 1-800-489-1001 x4 or send an email


Background: African American patients may be less likely than white patients to adhere to maintenance pharmacotherapy for bipolar disorder. The purpose of this study was to examine rates of medication nonadherence, self-perceived reasons for nonadherence, and attitudes associated with nonadherence in these ethnic groups.

Method: 20 African American and 30 white subjects with DSM-IV bipolar I disorder participated in this study. At a single follow-up visit with patients at least 4 months after their first hospitalization for acute mania, we assessed demographics, symptom severity, degrees of adherence, reasons for nonadherence, and self-perceptions regarding factors previously associated with nonadherence using a visual analog scale (VAS). The cross-sectional data that are the subject of this report were obtained from July 1, 2002, through June 30, 2004.

Results: Over 50% of participants in each group were currently either fully or partially nonadherent with medications. Greater than 20% of participants in each group denied having bipolar disorder and described physical side effects from medications as contributing to nonadherence. In principal components analysis of the VAS, 2 components were identified. The first component contained patient-related factors associated with nonadherence, while the second contained a combination of illness- and medication-related factors. African American participants were more likely to endorse patient-related factors associated with nonadherence relative to white participants. Specifically, African Americans self-endorsed a fear of becoming addicted to medications and feeling that medications were symbols of mental illness.

Conclusion: Findings suggest that both African American and white patients with bipolar disorder demonstrate poor medication adherence that they attribute to illness/medication-related factors (denial of illness, physical side effects). However, patient-related factors (fear of addiction, medication as a symbol of illness) accounted for ethnic differences on self-perceived ratings of nonadherence factors. Differences in the reasons for nonadherence relative to culturally biased self-perceptions may help explain nonadherence behaviors in the African American community.