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Longitudinal Follow-Up of Naturalistic Treatment Outcome in Patients With Trichotillomania
Background: Little is known about the longitudinal course of treatment outcome in patients with trichotillomania. The authors conducted a second follow-up assessment on a cohort of hair pullers previously studied.
Method: Forty-four subjects completed a hair-pulling questionnaire and paper-and-pencil measures of hair-pulling severity and impact, psychosocial functioning, depression, anxiety, and self-esteem. Mean time elapsed between the first and second follow-up assessment was 2.5 years (index evaluation to first follow-up = 3.5 years).
Results: Twenty-seven subjects (61.4%) had active treatment since the first follow-up. No significant changes in hair pulling, depression, anxiety, or psychosocial functioning were reported from first to second follow-up. Self-esteem scores significantly worsened during this period (p = .000). A trend toward worsening also existed for psychosocial impact scores. Comparison of scores at index evaluation with second follow-up still showed significant improvement over time for hair pulling (p = .001) but significant worsening in self-esteem (p = .000). Treatment and responder status were unrelated to clinical functioning, with the exception of depression and psychosocial impact.
Conclusion: Although hair pullers exhibit initial improvement with treatment, scale scores plateau or worsen by second follow-up. Significant worsening in self-esteem at second follow-up may be related to the absence of further improvements in hair-pulling severity. Future research should focus on the interrelationships among self-esteem, depression, and hair pulling during treatment for this disorder.