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Persistent Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following September 11 in Patients With Bipolar Disorder.
Objective: We examined the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following indirect exposure to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in a cohort at high risk for adverse trauma-related sequelae as a result of having bipolar disorder.
Method: Subjects (N = 137) were participants in the ongoing, naturalistic, longitudinal study Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD) prior to September 11, 2001. The present study examined prospectively collected pre-event information about bipolar disorder and other potential predictors of PTSD, along with assessment of the level of indirect trauma exposure (i.e., via media) and peritraumatic distress in the aftermath of September 11, and their association with 9/11-related, new-onset PTSD as assessed by a self-report measure, the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale.
Results: Posttrauma assessments were completed a mean ± SD of 430.6 ± 78.7 days (range, 0.5-1.5 years) after September 11. Twenty percent (N = 27) of patients reported development of new-onset PTSD in response to the September 11 attacks. Rates of PTSD were significantly associated with the presence of a hypomanic, manic, or mixed mood state at the time of trauma (chi2=4.25; p < .05); 62% of patients in these states developed PTSD. Mania/hypomania remained a significant predictor of PTSD in response to the September 11 attacks after controlling for peritraumatic exposure and distress variables, suggestive of a substantial increase in risk compared with those in recovery (OR = 17; 95% CI = 2.6 to 115.6; p = .0034).
Conclusions: Rates of persistent new-onset PTSD among bipolar patients were elevated in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks. Our findings suggest that the presence of a manic state may be the most critical risk factor for adverse sequelae following indirect traumatic exposure in bipolar individuals.