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The Impact of Calories and Fat Content of Meals on Oral Ziprasidone Absorption: A Randomized, Open-Label, Crossover Trial
Background: Food is known to increase the bioavailability of ziprasidone. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of meals of differing caloric and fat content on steady-state ziprasidone exposure in a stable, treated group of subjects with DSM-IV diagnoses of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, or psychotic disorder (not otherwise specified) who were already receiving oral ziprasidone as their standard therapy.
Method: Patients took ziprasidone under 6 meal conditions in randomized sequences (fasted, low calorie/low fat, low calorie/high fat, medium calorie/high fat, high calorie/low fat, and high calorie/high fat); each crossover period was separated by at least 3 days for washout of the previous meal condition. Serial blood samples were obtained over the 12 hours postdose. The study was conducted from July 27 to September 28 of 2006.
Results: Maximum ziprasidone exposures in this study were observed with high-calorie meals (1000 kcal), which were nearly twice those observed under fasting conditions. The medium-calorie meal (500 kcal) was associated with exposures similar to the high-calorie meals. Low-calorie meals (250 kcal) were associated with exposures that were approximately 60% to 90% lower than those of medium- and high-calorie meals, and approached exposures seen under fasting conditions. Fat content of the meal had no significant effect on ziprasidone absorption. The ziprasidone exposures observed with medium- and high-calorie meals had less variability than those with low-calorie meals and under fasting conditions.
Conclusion: These results confirm that ziprasidone should be taken with food and that a meal equal to or greater than 500 kcal, irrespective of fat content, is required for optimal and reproducible bioavailability of the administered dose.