10006190 J Clin Psychiatry / Document Archive

Psychiatrist.com Home    Keyword Search

Close [X]

Search Our Sites

Enter search terms below (keywords, titles, authors, or subjects). Then select a category to search and press the Search button. All words are assumed to be required. To search for an exact phrase, put it in quotes. To exclude a term, precede it with a minus sign (-).

Keyword search:

Choose a category:

Choosing the appropriate category will greatly improve your chances of finding the best match.

All files at our sites: J Clin Psychiatry, Primary Care Companion, CME Institute, and MedFair

Search materials from our journals:

Abstracts from The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 1996–present, both regular issues and supplements

PDFs of the full text of The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 1996–present, both regular issues and supplements (Net Society Platinum [paid subscribers])

PDFs of the full text of The Primary Care Companion to The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 1999–present

Search CME offerings:

CME Institute, including CME from journals , supplements, and Web activities for instant CME credit (Net Society Gold [registered users]); also includes information about our CME program

CME activities from regular issues of The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (Net Society Gold [registered users])

CME Supplements from The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (Net Society Gold [registered users])


The article you requested is

Treatment of Clozapine-Induced Hypersalivation With Ipratropium Bromide: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Study

J Clin Psychiatry 2009;70(8):1114-1119
Copyright 2009 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

To view this item, select one of the options below.

    1. Purchase this PDF for $40
      If you are not a paid subscriber, you may purchase the PDF.
      (You'll need the free Adobe Acrobat Reader.)
    2. Subscribe
      Receive immediate full-text access to JCP. You can subscribe to JCP print + online for $166 individual.
      JCP's 75th AnniversaryCelebrate!
      Celebrate JCP's 75th Anniversary with a special online-only subscription price of $75.
    1. Activate
      If you are a paid subscriber to JCP and do not yet have a username and password, activate your subscription now.
    2. Sign in
      As a paid subscriber who has activated your subscription, you have access to the HTML and PDF versions of this item.
  1. Did you forget your password?

Still can't log in? Contact the Circulation Department at 1-800-489-1001 x4 or send an email


Objective: Clozapine-induced hypersalivation (CIH) occurs in up to 57% of treated patients and can be the source of considerable subjective distress. Previous open-label studies suggest that sublingual ipratropium bromide may be effective in treating CIH.

Method: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial to evaluate the efficacy of ipratropium in 20 individuals with CIH between September 2006 and August 2007. This study was 5 to 6 weeks in duration, based on the participants’ clozapine blood-monitoring schedule, and it consisted of two 2-week crossover phases separated by a 1- or 2-week washout period. Primary outcome measures included the reduction in the Toronto Nocturnal Hypersalivation Scale (TNHS) and the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness (CGI-S) and -Improvement (CGI-I) scales. Secondary outcomes included visual analog scales assessing hypersalivation severity (VAS-S) and distress (VAS-D).

Results: No significant reduction in CIH was found on the TNHS (P=.379), CGI-S (P=.266), or CGI-I (P=.599). Moreover, no difference was noted between study groups on the VAS-S (P=.969) and VAS-D (P=.527). There was no difference in the number of CIH responders at the conclusion of the 2-week placebo (40%, n=8) and ipratropium (45%, n=9) study phases (45%, n=9) according to the TNHS. Randomization order did not have a significant effect on TNHS, CGI-S, or CGI-I scores. Tolerability was comparable between groups, with dry mouth occurring in 1 placebo group subject and 2 ipratropium group subjects.

Conclusions: Despite the reports of some preliminary studies that ipratropium is an efficacious treatment for CIH, ipratropium failed to demonstrate significant clinical effect in comparison to placebo. Further research should explore the efficacy of other locally acting anticholinergic agents or other classes of medications.

Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00381589

Submitted: June 22, 2008; accepted September 10, 2008.

Corresponding author: Sanjeev Sockalingam, MD, University Health Network, Toronto General Hospital 8EN-225, 200 Elizabeth St, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4, Canada (sanjeev.sockalingam@uhn.on.ca).