10007331 J Clin Psychiatry / Document Archive

Psychiatrist.com Home    Keyword Search

Close [X]

Search Our Sites

Enter search terms below (keywords, titles, authors, or subjects). Then select a category to search and press the Search button. All words are assumed to be required. To search for an exact phrase, put it in quotes. To exclude a term, precede it with a minus sign (-).

Keyword search:

Choose a category:

Choosing the appropriate category will greatly improve your chances of finding the best match.

All files at our sites: J Clin Psychiatry, Primary Care Companion, CME Institute, and MedFair

Search materials from our journals:

Abstracts from The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 1996–present, both regular issues and supplements

PDFs of the full text of The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 1996–present, both regular issues and supplements (Net Society Platinum [paid subscribers])

PDFs of the full text of The Primary Care Companion to The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 1999–present

Search CME offerings:

CME Institute, including CME from journals , supplements, and Web activities for instant CME credit (Net Society Gold [registered users]); also includes information about our CME program

CME activities from regular issues of The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (Net Society Gold [registered users])

CME Supplements from The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (Net Society Gold [registered users])

 

The article you requested is

Psychological Characteristics of Chronic Depression: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

J Clin Psychiatry 2011;72(3):288-294
10.4088/JCP.09m05735blu
Copyright 2011 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

To view this item, select one of the options below.

  1. NONSUBSCRIBERS
    1. Purchase this PDF for $40
      If you are not a paid subscriber, you may purchase the PDF.
      (You'll need the free Adobe Acrobat Reader.)
    2. Subscribe
      Receive immediate full-text access to JCP. You can subscribe to JCP print + online for $166 individual.
      JCP's 75th AnniversaryCelebrate!
      Celebrate JCP's 75th Anniversary with a special online-only subscription price of $75.
  2. PAID SUBSCRIBERS
    1. Activate
      If you are a paid subscriber to JCP and do not yet have a username and password, activate your subscription now.
    2. Sign in
      As a paid subscriber who has activated your subscription, you have access to the HTML and PDF versions of this item.
  1. Did you forget your password?

Still can't log in? Contact the Circulation Department at 1-800-489-1001 x4 or send an email

| 54.196.195.207

Background: Few studies have investigated the importance of psychological characteristics for chronicity of depression. Knowledge about psychological differences between chronically depressed persons and nonchronically depressed persons may help to improve treatment of chronic depression. This is the first study to simultaneously compare in large samples various psychological characteristics between chronically depressed and nonchronically depressed adults.

Method: Baseline data were drawn from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), an ongoing longitudinal cohort study aimed at examining the long-term course of depressive and anxiety disorders in different health care settings and phases of illness. Participants were aged 18 to 65 years at the baseline assessment in 2004–2007 and had a current diagnosis of DSM-IV major depressive disorder (N = 1,002). Chronicity of depression was defined as being depressed for 24 months or more in the past 4 to 5 years. The chronicity criterion was fulfilled by 31% (n = 312). The NEO Five-Factor Inventory measured the 5 personality domains, the Leiden Index of Depression Sensitivity-Revised was used to measure cognitive reactivity (eg, hopelessness, rumination), and the Mastery Scale measured external locus of control.

Results: Compared to the nonchronically depressed persons, the chronically depressed persons reported significantly higher levels of neuroticism (OR = 1.81; 95% CI, 1.55–2.12; P < .001), external locus of control (OR = 1.94; 95% CI, 1.66–2.28; P < .001), and the following dimensions of cognitive reactivity: hopelessness (OR = 1.64; 95% CI, 1.43–1.88; P < .001), aggression (OR = 1.29; 95% CI, 1.13–1.48; P < .001), risk aversion (OR = 1.43; 95% CI, 1.24–1.63; P < .001), and rumination (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.34–1.78; P < .001). They had significantly lower levels of extraversion (OR = 0.57; 95% CI, 0.49–0.67; P < .001), agreeableness (OR = 0.85; 95% CI, 0.74–0.97; P = .02), and conscientiousness (OR = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.67–0.88; P < .001). When testing these variables multivariably, the odds of chronic depression were significantly increased among those with low extraversion (OR = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.61–0.88; P = .001), high rumination (OR = 1.24; 95% CI, 1.01–1.53; P = .04), and high external locus of control (OR = 1.48; 95% CI, 1.21–1.80; P < .001). Controlling for severity of depressive symptoms, age at onset, comorbidity with anxiety disorders, medical illnesses, and treatment status did not change these results.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that extraversion, rumination, and external locus of control, but not neuroticism, are differentiating psychological characteristics for chronicity of depression. These findings provide suggestions for more specific interventions, focused on extraversion, rumination, and external locus of control, in the treatment of chronic depression.

J Clin Psychiatry 2011;72(3):288–294

Submitted: October 1, 2009; accepted January 28, 2010 (doi:10.4088/JCP.09m05735blu).

Corresponding author: Jenneke E. Wiersma, MSc, GGZ inGeest, AJ Ernststraat 1187, 1081 HL, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (j.wiersma@ggzingeest.nl).