10007361 J Clin Psychiatry / Document Archive

Psychiatrist.com Home    Keyword Search

Close [X]

Search Our Sites

Enter search terms below (keywords, titles, authors, or subjects). Then select a category to search and press the Search button. All words are assumed to be required. To search for an exact phrase, put it in quotes. To exclude a term, precede it with a minus sign (-).

Keyword search:

Choose a category:

Choosing the appropriate category will greatly improve your chances of finding the best match.

All files at our sites: J Clin Psychiatry, Primary Care Companion, CME Institute, and MedFair

Search materials from our journals:

Abstracts from The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 1996–present, both regular issues and supplements

PDFs of the full text of The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 1996–present, both regular issues and supplements (Net Society Platinum [paid subscribers])

PDFs of the full text of The Primary Care Companion to The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 1999–present

Search CME offerings:

CME Institute, including CME from journals , supplements, and Web activities for instant CME credit (Net Society Gold [registered users]); also includes information about our CME program

CME activities from regular issues of The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (Net Society Gold [registered users])

CME Supplements from The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (Net Society Gold [registered users])


The article you requested is

Metabolic Depression: A Chronic Depressive Subtype? Findings From the InCHIANTI Study of Older Persons

J Clin Psychiatry 2011;72(5):598-604
Copyright 2011 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

To view this item, select one of the options below.

    1. Purchase this PDF for $40
      If you are not a paid subscriber, you may purchase the PDF.
      (You'll need the free Adobe Acrobat Reader.)
    2. Subscribe
      Receive immediate full-text access to JCP. You can subscribe to JCP print + online for $166 individual.
      JCP's 75th AnniversaryCelebrate!
      Celebrate JCP's 75th Anniversary with a special online-only subscription price of $75.
    1. Activate
      If you are a paid subscriber to JCP and do not yet have a username and password, activate your subscription now.
    2. Sign in
      As a paid subscriber who has activated your subscription, you have access to the HTML and PDF versions of this item.
  1. Did you forget your password?

Still can't log in? Contact the Circulation Department at 1-800-489-1001 x4 or send an email


Objective: Several studies report a cross-sectional association between metabolic syndrome and depression. Possibly, metabolic syndrome promotes onset or chronicity of depression. However, such a longitudinal link has not yet been confirmed. This study examines whether metabolic syndrome or its components are associated with onset and chronicity of depression.

Method: Secondary analyses were performed on data from 823 participants (≥ 65 years of age) in the InCHIANTI study, a prospective, population-based cohort study of older persons. From 1998 to 2000, the study sample was randomly selected from the population registry of 2 sites in Italy using a multistage stratified sampling method. Baseline data collection consisted of a home interview and a medical evaluation at the study clinic. Follow-up for each participant occurred after 3 years and 6 years. Metabolic syndrome at baseline was defined as ≥ 3 of the following: abdominal obesity, high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high blood pressure, and high fasting glucose. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) at baseline and after 3 and 6 years. Sample characteristics were compared between persons with and without depression at baseline using χ2 and t statistics. Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately in persons with and without depression at baseline to test whether metabolic syndrome at baseline could predict onset and chronicity of depression at follow-up.

Results: At baseline, 235 persons had metabolic syndrome, and 168 were depressed (CES-D score ≥ 20). Among persons not depressed at baseline, 26.0% developed depression. Higher waist circumference increased the odds of depression onset (adjusted OR per SD increase = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.05–1.56), but there was no association between other metabolic syndrome components and onset of depression. Among persons depressed at baseline, depression had a chronic character in 69.0% of persons without and 88.5% of persons with metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was associated with an almost 3-fold increase in the odds of chronicity of depression (adjusted OR = 2.66; 95% CI, 1.01–7.00), with almost every metabolic syndrome component contributing to this association.

Conclusion: In late life, waist circumference, but not metabolic syndrome, predicted onset of depression. Depressed persons with metabolic syndrome were more likely to have persistent or recurrent depression. The latter may suggest that depression with metabolic abnormalities, which could be labeled metabolic depression, identifies a chronic subtype of depression.

J Clin Psychiatry

Submitted: September 7, 2010; accepted December 30, 2010.

Online ahead of print: April 5, 2011 (doi:10.4088/JCP.10m06559).

Corresponding author: Nicole Vogelzangs, PhD, Department of Psychiatry and EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, AJ Ernststraat 1187, 1081 HL Amsterdam, The Netherlands (n.vogelzangs@vumc.nl).