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Bupropion Sustained Release Added to Group Support for Smoking Cessation in Schizophrenia: A New Randomized Trial and a Meta-Analysis
Objective: To clarify the efficacy and tolerability of bupropion sustained release (SR) for the treatment of cigarette smoking in people with schizophrenia.
Method: The first study is a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with 32 outpatients from the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. From May 2003 to July 2007, clinically stable people with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who smoked at least 10 cigarettes per day and who were interested in quitting smoking or cutting down were recruited for participation. All participated in a 9-week support group and were randomly assigned to receive 12 weeks of bupropion SR or placebo. The primary outcome measure was 4 weeks’ sustained abstinence over the last 4 study weeks. Secondary outcome measures included decrease in smoking behavior and change in symptoms, neuropsychological performance, and side effects. In the second study, we performed an electronic literature search of MEDLINE in September 2008. Articles in English published between 2003 and 2008 were searched for the terms schizophrenia, bupropion SR, and smoking. Bibliographies of studies identified through the MEDLINE search were also examined. Case reports, open-label studies, crossover studies, and studies using nonstandard dosing of bupropion SR were excluded. In this way, 4 studies similar in methodology to the currently presented clinical trial were identified and the individual data combined in a meta-analysis. A random effects meta-analysis using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software was used to obtain a pooled estimate of the odds ratio for 4-week smoking abstinence between bupropion SR and placebo.
Results: There were no significant results on the primary or secondary smoking measures for the clinical trial, although a numeric advantage favored the bupropion SR group. There were no significant findings for secondary symptom or side effect measures and no significant change in neuropsychological performance. For the meta-analysis totaling 226 subjects, there were significant findings in favor of bupropion SR. The pooled estimate of the odds ratio for 4-week abstinence was 2.7 (95% CI, 1.3 to 5.7; P = .009), and clinically significant greater smoking reduction in the bupropion SR group, with pooled difference estimates increasing over time between groups, became statistically significant by week 5 of study medication (P < .02).
Conclusions: New clinical trial data and a meta-analysis strongly support the tolerability and efficacy of bupropion SR for the treatment of cigarette smoking in people with schizophrenia
Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier:
J Clin Psychiatry
Submitted: March 28, 2010; accepted August 3, 2010.
Online ahead of print: April 5, 2011 (doi:10.4088/JCP.10m06143gre).
Corresponding author: Elaine Weiner, MD, Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, PO Box 21247, Baltimore, MD 21228 (firstname.lastname@example.org).