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Relationship Between Serum Homocysteine Levels and Depressive Symptoms: The Cooper Center Longitudinal Study
Objective: Elevated serum levels of the amino acid homocysteine (HCY) are associated with a variety of diseases. To resolve conflicting findings in studies that suggest a relationship between elevated serum HCY levels and depression, we examined the relationship between HCY levels and depressive symptoms in the largest sample studied to date.
Method: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 11,757 participants (68.9% men) aged 20 to 90 years who completed preventive health examinations at the Cooper Clinic, Dallas, Texas, from 2007 to 2010. Currently experiencing depression was defined as a 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) score of ≥ 10. Serum HCY levels were obtained. Data were analyzed in a multiple logistic regression model of CES-D score of ≥ 10.
Results: When controlling for age, sex, body mass index, exercise, education, smoking, antidepressant use, creatinine level, alcohol use, and chronic medical conditions, elevated HCY was associated with 26% greater odds of currently experiencing depressive symptoms (P = .007) as defined by CES-D score.
Conclusions: In the largest sample examined to date, we found a significant positive relationship between elevated serum HCY levels and currently experiencing depressive symptoms. Given the cross-sectional nature of the study, it is not possible to determine the direction of the relationship or whether lowering HCY levels will ameliorate depressive symptoms. Thus, longitudinal studies are needed.
J Clin Psychiatry
© Copyright 2012 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Submitted: June 20, 2011; accepted August 19. 2011.
Online ahead of print: March 20, 2012 (doi:10.4088/JCP.11m07223).
Corresponding author: E. Sherwood Brown, MD, PhD, Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, MC 8849, Dallas, TX 75390-8849 (Sherwood.Brown@UTSouthwestern.edu).